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【动态】中国第十二届全国美术作品展国际巡展美国展开幕典礼

2015-06-24 09:22:43 来源:艺术家提供作者:刘大为
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  展览名称:中国第十二届全国美术作品展国际巡展美国展开幕典礼

  展览时间:2015年7月8日(星期三)下午6时

  展览城市:美国纽约

  展览地点:纽约曼哈顿麦迪逊大道580号

  主办单位:中国美术家协会

  承办单位:国家艺术基金属2014年度资助项目

  展览介绍:中国全国美术作品展览是中国目前规模最大、参与范围最广、作品种类最多、最具影响力和权威性的国家级综合性美术大展。从1949年创办至今,没五年举办一届,已走过六十多年历程。全国美展不仅见证了新中国历史变迁的进程,记录着20世纪后半叶以来中国美术发展的脉络和成就,还培养和造就了大批美术人才,推动了中国美术从传统形态向现代形态的历史性转变。

  国际展所展出的65件中国当代美术作品均选自去年《中国第十二届全国美术作品展览》获奖的精品力作,题材丰富,形式多样,集中展示了近五年来中国美术创作的最新成果和较高水准。

  作品当中既有对过往历史的深刻反思,又有对现实民生的人文关照;既有对自然风光的赞美,也有对都市图景的感怀;既有中国传统笔墨的更新,又有西方现代构成的实验。这不仅揭示出中国当代美术融会贯通、开拓新的进步特质,也表现了中国美术家们的国际视野、艺术理想和责任担当、是对现实主义主流美术的坚守和巡礼,是对当代中国社会所了历经巨变的全景展示。

  前言

  全国美展作为中国的国展,从1949年创办至今,已走过了60余年的风雨历程。这12届全国美展不仅见证了新中国历史变迁的进程,记录着20世纪后半叶以来中国美术发展的脉络和成就,而且还培养和造就了大批美术人才,推动了中国美术从传统形态向现代形态的历史性转变。如今的全国美展,在规模、影响和权威性上居国内之首,在国际美术盛会中也占有一席之地。

  第十二届全国美展共分中国画、油画、版画、雕塑、壁画、水彩粉画、陶艺、漆画、艺术设计、综合画种·动漫、综合材料绘画、实验艺术、港澳台暨海外华人十三个展区,从2014年8月15日至2015年1月4日,历时近半年的全国美展相继在天津、杭州、广州、太原、北京、武汉、西安、福州、嘉兴、石家庄、盘锦等城市盛大开幕,其中优秀作品在12月15日汇集北京中国美术馆展出,隆重的颁奖典礼将展览推向高潮。本届全国美展荟萃了近五年中国美术各个门类的创作成果,构成了中国现代美术强大的整体阵容,也凸显了现代美术创作对于历史与现实的人文关怀。下文即以国际巡展作品为例,对美展特色作一梳理。

  历史记忆

  这些作品鲜明地展现了当代中国美术家的现实敏锐性与社会责任感。在纪念新中国成立65周年这个具有特别意义的历史节点上,美术家的思想情感和祖国人民跳动的脉搏息息相通,他们用丰富多彩的造型艺术语言审美地再现了中国历史和中国文化的建构与复兴。金奖作品何红舟的《桥上的风景》,用厚重的油画笔触将中国近现代三位美术先驱青年时代留学巴黎时的身影定格,犹如雕塑般伫立的人物形象成为中国美术史以及中外美术交流史上不可磨灭的别样风景。而银奖作品李成民的《开国大典·人民万岁》则以一种写意加表现的油画语言,宣告了古老而又年轻的中华民族在历经无数屈辱和苦难后浴火重生时的壮怀激烈,泼辣而纵横挥写的笔触与色块赋予了画面一种超越现实的精神张力。王野翔的《春潮——邓小平与习仲勋在1979》则借助水墨表现领导人在共商国是时的从容与淡定,再现了国家在经历改革开放的历史转折时的风云激荡,歌颂了一代伟人的高瞻远瞩与政治胸怀。

  现实观照

  在现实主题上,许多作品不仅表现了当代中国社会的历史巨变,而且从各种角度揭示了这种历史巨变中蕴含的社会精神的变迁,采用的表达方式甚至是抽象化、观念化的。铜奖作品袁伟的《碎片》就是用综合材料的形式语言,将铁板和纸张这两种物理性质差异巨大的材料直接对话,抽离出各自的符号学意义,主观促成不同材质之间的矛盾对立与统一,以此反思中西方文化的冲突与交融。另一幅铜奖作品的主题则显沉重,姜永安在中国画《伤逝的肖像·中国“慰安妇”写真》中,将垂垂老矣的慰安妇排列在画面上,一帧帧现实肖像在无声地控诉着人类文明史中最丑陋而黑暗的一页。她们组成了国难史中的每一个文字,猛烈冲击着观者的心灵。王昌淦的版画《历史之镜系列》则是用一种貌似严肃却略带戏谑的语调,为我们呈现出观照现实的另一种方式。每个重大事件都被赋予了超现实主义特征,反映出信息消费时代公众所特有的娱乐心态。但历史就像一面镜子,悄然无声地承载着一切。

  军事国防题材历来是全国美展的重要内容之一。此次国际巡展的相关作品却没有直接表现军事斗争,而是更加注重内涵的沉淀和艺术语言的提炼。阮梅的油画《于无声处》用写实手法,表现了军事训练前,指挥官在阵地向士兵们部署战术计划时的一幕。画题实为点睛之笔,它将巨大的力量暂时收纳在演习前布局推演中,动与静的较量与转换,即将在下一刻冲破这短暂的平衡。孙岱婵的《维和日记(红土地蓝盔情)》,则在用富有温度的水墨语言,讲述中国维和军人在非洲执行任务时,同当地普通民众结下的深厚情谊,呈现了铁血军人脉脉情深的动人一面,升华出和平、奉献与博爱的崇高主旨。范琛则在《天地梦圆》如此表现航天工程的宏大叙事中,刻意回避雄壮与激烈的发展过程,而是截取宇航员太空行走时的静谧,展现“大音希声”的航天精神,赋予航天事业唯美和诗意。

  都市图景

  和近些年全国美展所呈现的艺术形态相似,都市主题更鲜明地构成了当下中国美术的人文关怀与艺术探索最有活力的驱动器与创造源。以现代科技和时尚化装扮的城市人文景观,促使中国美术以审美的方式不断拉近传统与现实的距离。许多作品在题材选择、形象塑造和心理捕捉等方面,都有新颖而独到的表现。银奖作品梁业健的《青影》以当下都市街头常见的青年人舞蹈运动场面为题材,凝固住最具张力的一瞬,明快而充满动感,用青春的身影诠释当代中国年轻人的朝气与活力,丰富了版画语言的视觉表现力。王羽天的油画《遥望》通过对一位少女闲适生活状态的描写,展现了人们在喧嚣都市中渴望放空心灵的精神追求,这种特定的静态式的表现,传递出人物对于内心和外部世界丰富的情感状态。宫丽的中国画《来苏香》采用借喻的手法,用花香指代肩负神圣使命的医务工作者。细腻抒情的工笔技法描绘出现代化医院中的日常景象,特定的审美心理诉求促成了都市视觉特征的审美关照。

  自然命题

  当代中国美术家的人文关怀,一方面体现在对于生命个体的物质生存与精神生存的关切上,一方面则体现在对人类自身生存环境与自然生态平衡忧虑上。杨诚的油画《剩山归途》运用斧辟式的大笔触描绘了一座高大的石山在现代工业开采下不断坍塌、开裂,遍布累累伤痕的悲凉情景。山下荒芜的农田象征着生命的凋敝,剩山也面临开采殆尽的命运,也许这也暗示着人与自然的殊途同归。中国绘画尚有寓情于景的美学传统,强调自然的拟人化,含蓄地表达画家本人的精神与理想。刘立勇的《西岳丰碑》结合写实和写意,用松散的笔墨描绘五岳之一华山的主峰,经墨与色层层渲染叠加,呈现出西岳华山初春残雪清冷、巍峨奇峻的自然胜景,以此抒发大气磅礴、意境幽远的北方山水情怀。王炳懿的漆画《生息·华彩墨章》讲述了秋荷荣枯变换的自然规律,用华彩的绽放与从容的凋零营构强烈的心理效果,又用墨漆与金漆的反差形视觉对比,诠释了自身对生命轮转的深入思考。

  民族风情

  少数民族风情是全国美展中又一集中表现的热门题材。身处56个民族共生共融的大家庭,中国美术家们始终在民族地区的自然风光、人文景观中汲取养分和灵感,在凸出民族特色的同时,彰显中华民族的文化共性以及共有的价值诉求。版画家袁庆禄的作品《祥云·圣女》通过表现一位藏族母亲在草原哺育孩子的温馨场景,揭示了人物在高原雪域中那非常规环境下的顽强和凝重,背景腾空而起的祥云映衬出生命的圣洁和伟大,令观者感受到一种充满力量的视觉图像和富有历史深度的崇高感。初剑的水彩作品《家园》将彝族四世同堂大家庭的群体形象定格为画面,其乐融融的家庭氛围象征着少数民族同胞平等和谐的生活现状。作品通过表情的细致刻画揭示内心的幸福感,营造出清新、高远的美好意境。敖登高娃的《祝酒歌》借鉴中国传统壁画的诸多创作技法,表现了蒙古族少女身着节日盛装,手捧哈达,端着银碗,向远方客人唱起热情的祝酒歌。红黑相间的强烈对比色,表现出蒙古民族淳朴好客的内在气质。

  结语

  在新媒体艺术不断挑战架上艺术的当下,五年一届的全国美展在整体的艺术格局上进行了适度的调整,比如首次将陶艺、漆画和综合材料绘画独立出来,在艺术设计展区增加了工艺美术的内容,增设实验艺术展区,表明了主流美术对于影像、装置、观念等当代艺术理念部分认同和吸纳。特别是实验艺术作为国家改革开放后的新生事物,其艺术特征注重思想精神的表达,探索新媒介形式和新视觉经验,因而首次以独立展区的面貌为公众呈现中国近十年的实验艺术生态之外,还首次邀请海外华人美术家参展,以此联系华夏子孙浓浓的血脉亲情。

  从内容审视,展览作品在题材、内容和表现样式上呈现出前所未有的丰富性,既有历史事件的当代解读,也有百姓民生的点滴记录;既有紧张忙碌都市生活的描摹刻画,也有对自然界山水花鸟的生动展示;既有传统中国笔墨的传承发展,也有当代工笔的创新开拓;既有写实技法的探索研琢,也有意象写意的当代转化;既有扎实的学院派造型语言,也有轻松诙谐的当代艺术元素。

  由此可见,全国美展正在不断关注与切近“当代性”。这种“当代性”不仅体现在美术创作对于历史与现实的敏锐观照上、体现在艺术家们丰富有力的视觉表达上、体现在造型观念与语言展现出的一种持续不断的自我更新与自我修复能力上,也体现在全球化语境中对于主流美术的毅然坚守上、体现在当代中国美术本体所具备的开放、包容与自信的特性上。正因如此,行进之中的全国美展正在逐渐开创具备自身特色的当代性的表述方式与文化姿态。

  刘大为

  中国美术家协会主席

  2015年1月

  Foreword

  Over six decades have passed since the National Exhibition of Fine Arts (NEFA) was first launched in 1949. The last 12 editions of this exhibition documented the changes of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since its founding. The exhibition has recorded the development and achievements of Chinese fine arts in the second half of the 20th Century. The NEFA has also helped cultivate talent and promote fine arts in its modern form. Today, NEFA ranks first in China in terms of scale, influence and authority. At the same time, it plays an important role in the world of international fine arts.

  The 12th NEFA displayed traditional Chinese paintings, oil paintings, prints, sculptures, murals, watercolors, ceramics, lacquer, design, unorthodox painting styles, animation, non-traditional material paintings, experimental art from the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan, as well as foreign countries. The NEFA successively toured Tianjin, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Taiyuan, Beijing, Wuhan, Xi’an, Fuzhou, Jiaxing, Shijiazhuang, and Panjin over a half year from August 15, 2014 to January 4, 2015. Works reached the National Art Museum of China on December 15 in Beijing, where the atmosphere reached new heights with a grand award ceremony there. During this year’s NEFA, various works came together to create a powerful image of fine arts in modern China. It also highlighted the humanistic side of modern fine arts in relation to history and the present. The characteristics of such exhibitions will be analyzed around the world in perpetuity via their displays.

  Historical Memory

  These works vividly demonstrate the insight of modern Chinese artists regarding reality and social responsibility. At the special historic moment marked by the 65th anniversary of PRC, the thoughts and feelings of artists were closely connected to the throbbing pulse of the people, and they aesthetically reconstructed the foundation and rejuvenation of Chinese history and culture with the colorful language of plastic art. The gold prize work Scenery on Bridge by He Hongzhou catches the figures of three pioneers of fine arts at young ages as they studied in Paris. Like statues, these characters have become indelible and unique to the history of Chinese fine arts as well as to communicate between Chinese and foreign artists. Silver prize-winningThe Founding Ceremony: Long Live the People by Li Chengmin uses oil painting styles of both freehand brushwork and expressionism to declare that the vigorous ambition of the venerable yet young Chinese nation will be revived from ashes after seemingly endless humiliation and misery. Pungent and unrestrained brushwork and color blocks endow the painting with spiritual tension that transcends reality. Torrents of the Spring – Deng Xiaoping and Xi Zhongxun in 1979 by Wang Yexiang uses ink and wash to depict the composure and prudence of our leaders when discussing state affairs. It reproduces the rapid changes and transformation brought by China’s reform and opening-up. It celebrates the foresight and political courage of forward-looking leaders.

  Realistic Reflection

  In depicting the real world, many works not only show the great changes in modern Chinese society, but also hearken to various thoughts of the people. These thoughts are often abstract and idealized. Bronze award-winning Fragments by Yuan Wei uses art language to create a direct dialogue between iron and paper, two materials with vastly different physical properties. He extracts semiotic meanings from them and promotes their harmony, through which he reflects on the clashes and integration of Chinese and Western culture. The theme of another bronze award-winning work is rather serious. In the traditional Chinese painting Fading Figures: Portraits of Chinese “Comfort Women, Jiang Yong’an arranges aging former comfort women on the paper, enabling realistic portraits to silently condemn one of the ugliest and darkest chapters in human history. Words are formed related to horrific situation endured by many which shock spectators’ hearts. The engraved painting Series of the Mirror of History reflects reality in another way, with a seemingly serious but actually slightly humorous tone. Every significant event is endowed with a surrealistic feature, reflecting on the entertainment-focused mindset of the public in the information and consumption era. However, history is just like a mirror witnessing everything silently.

  The subject of defense has always been an important piece of the NEFAs. Works in this exhibition do not directly depict military battles. Instead, they pay more attention to connotations and artistic language. The oil painting Soundless Place by Ruan Mei shows the scene of a commander presenting his plans to soldiers during training. The title is actually a crowning touch, temporarily concealing the great power within the strategic deposition and the shift between movement and stillness will break the temporary balance in the next moment. Sun Daichan’s Peacekeeping Diary (Red Soil, Blue Helmet) expresses the sincere friendship between Chinese peacekeepers and locals during missions in Africa. It reveals the humanistic side of tough-as-nails soldiers and illustrates the lofty theme of peace, contributions and universal love. Fan Chen presents the development of aerospace engineering in Realizing the Dream of Space, deliberately avoiding the marvelous and intense process. Instead, he turns to the silent moment of astronauts walking in space to show the outer space spirit, “the greatest sounds are always hardest to hear,” and endow spaceflight poetic beauty.

  Urban Landscape

  Similar to the artistic forms shown in recent NEFAs, urban theme is the most vigorous driver and creative source for illustrating humanity and artistic exploration in Chinese fine arts. The humanistic landscape in cities with modern technologies and trendy fashion prompts Chinese arts to shorten the distance between tradition and reality in an aesthetic way. Many works are unique and innovative in choosing themes, creating images and capturing psychological activities. The silver prize work Cyan Shadows by Liang Yejiantakes the scene of young people dancing in the city streets as its subject, and focuses on the most dynamic moment which is permeated with delight and vigor. The figures interpret the vigor and vitality of contemporary Chinese young people, and enrich the visual performance of the print language. The oil painting Looking into the Distance by Wang Yutian demonstrates the spiritual pursuit of people in noisy cities to free their souls through the description of a maiden’s cozy life. This specific static expression discloses the character’s rich feelings about the internal and external world. In Gong Li’s traditional Chinese painting Fragrance of Lysol, the fragrance of Lysol is a metaphor used to describe medical workers undertaking divine missions. His delicate and lyrical brushwork presents the daily scenes of modern hospitals, and the intentional pursuit of aesthetic psychology contributed to the aesthetic care of the work’s urban visual characteristics.

  Natural Subjects

  The humanistic care of contemporary Chinese artists embodies their concerns for material and spiritual existence in life, but also their worries about the balance between human existence and the natural environment. Yang Cheng’s oil painting Homeward Journey in the Remained Mountainuses a grand style to depict a miserable scene of a huge stone mountain collapsing after enduring the scars of modern industrial exploitation. The lost farmland below the mountain symbolizes destitute life and the resources in the mountain on the left are doomed to dry up. Perhaps this underlines the intertwining destiny of humans and nature.

  Chinese paintings maintain an aesthetic tradition combining emotion with scenery and emphasizing the personification of nature to subtly express the spirit and ideals of the artist himself. Liu Liyong’s Huashan Mountain, a Great Monument combines realism with freehand style to depict Huashan Mountain, one of China’s most celebrated peaks, with broad lines. The natural scenery of early spring snow and steep cliffs is presented through overlapping layers of ink and color, expressing the magnificence, tranquility and remoteness of the landscape in northern China. Wang Bingyi’s lacquer painting Lotus hints at the natural rules of exuberance and the withering of the lotus in autumn. Strong psychological effects are formed with a glamorous blossom and calm withering, and the visual contrast between black and golden lacquer preserves the artist’s pondering about life cycles.

  Customs of Minority Groups

  The customs of China’s minorities are consistently some of the most popular subjects displayed at the NEFAs. Chinese artists continuously find inspiration from the natural and human landscape of areas inhabited by the country’s 56 ethnic groups. They focus on the most vibrant of the nation’s characteristics and at the same time display the shared values of all of the Chinese nation. Print maker Yuan Qinglu’s Auspicious Clouds and Holy Virgin shows fortitude and dismay in the abnormal environment of a snow-covered plateau through a warm scene of a Tibetan mother feeding her son on the prairie. A propitious cloud floating in the background reflects the purity and greatness of life, and inspires a sense of loftiness. Chu Jian’s watercolor Homeland catches a big Yi family across four generations living under the same roof, and the harmonious atmosphere of the family symbolizes the living conditions of equality and harmony among ethnic groups. This work shows the happiness of the family with detailed facial expressions in a fresh, lofty and beautiful scene. Aodeng Gaowa’s Toasting Song borrows much from traditional Chinese mural painting. It shows a scene of Mongolian maidens in festive dresses carrying Khata and silver bowls while singing a welcome tune for guests from afar. The strong contrast between red and black colors is symbolic of Mongolian hospitality.

  Conclusion

  With continuous challenges posed by new forms of art to traditional fine arts, the quinquennial NEFA has adjusted to suit changing times. For example, ceramic crafts, mural paintings and comprehensive material paintings were just added as independent exhibitions. NEFA also added experimental arts after their adoption by mainstream art due to contemporary artistic theories involving images, devices and values.Experimental art emerged as a new form after reform and opening-up. It focuses on the expression of spiritual thoughts, the exploration of new forms of media and the modern visual approach. Along with presenting Chinese experimental work from the past ten years to the public in an independent exhibition area, the NEFA also began inviting overseas Chinese artists to participate in the exhibition in order to bring Chinese descendants closer to each other.

  Exhibited works depict unprecedentedly rich subject matter, content and expression, including both contemporary interpretation of historical events and detailed records of people and their livelihoods. Visitors see depictions of a busy urban life and the vivid demonstration of natural living things, the succession and development of traditional Chinese painting and the innovation of contemporary elaborate-style painting, exploration of skills in realistic painting and the contemporary transformation of freehand brushwork, and solid modeling language of the academic school and relaxing and humorous contemporary artistic elements.

  Consequently, the NEFA is constantly focusing on and approaching “contemporariness”. This is reflected in the contemplation of history and reality by the artists, but also their rich and powerful visual expression and continuous ability to self-renew and recover. The NEFA is committed to promoting mainstream art in a globalized context and with the openness, inclusiveness, and confidence of contemporary Chinese arts itself. The NEFA is creating contemporary expressive forms and a cultural stance derived of its own characteristics.

  Liu Dawei

  President of China Artists Association

  January 2015

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